Ford Taurus Service Manual: Fuel Charging and Controls - Turbocharger, 3.5L GTDI

SPECIFICATIONS

Material

Ford Taurus. Engine

Torque Specifications

Ford Taurus. Engine

Refer to the procedure in this section.

DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

Turbocharger

NOTICE: Whenever turbocharger air intake system components are removed, always cover open ports to protect from debris. It is important that no foreign material enter the system. The turbocharger compressor vanes are susceptible to damage from even small particles. All components should be inspected and cleaned, if necessary, prior to installation or reassembly.

The turbocharger assembly consists of the following components:

  • LH turbocharger
  • RH turbocharger

The turbocharger is an exhaust-driven centrifugal air compressor. Its purpose is to increase power output by supplying compressed air to the engine. The internal components are oil, coolant and air cooled. Engine oil and coolant are circulated through the center housing which acts as a heat barrier between the "hot" turbine and the "cold" compressor. Bearings are sleeve type and lubricated by engine oil. Oil is circulated to the turbocharger center housing and returned to the sump through an oil drain in the center housing.

Expanding exhaust gases drive the turbine shaft assembly to speeds up to 200,000 rpm. Filtered air entering the compressor side of the turbocharger is compressed and delivered through a Charge Air Cooler (CAC). The very hot compressed air is cooled, then continues on to fill the intake manifold at a higher pressure than atmospheric pressure. Because considerably more air is forced into the intake manifold, the results are increased power, fuel efficiency and the ability to maintain power at higher altitudes.

The EcoBoost twin turbochargers are used in a parallel arrangement with one turbocharger connected to each cylinder bank. This configuration improves engine responsiveness due to the reduced interia of 2 small turbochargers. This also leads to an improved turbocharger package and better utilization of heat energy from the compact exhaust manifolds. The compact design of the system allows the catalysts to be located very close to the turbocharger outlet for improved emissions.

Turbochargers

NOTE: Black arrows indicate hot, white arrows indicate cold.

Ford Taurus. Engine

Ford Taurus. Engine

DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING

Turbocharger

Principles of Operation

The turbocharger is an exhaust-driven centrifugal air compressor. Its purpose is to increase power output by supplying compressed air to the engine. The internal components are oil, coolant and air cooled. Engine oil and coolant are circulated through the center housing which acts as a heat barrier between the "hot" turbine and the "cold" compressor. Bearings are sleeve type and lubricated by engine oil. Oil is circulated to the turbocharger center housing and returned to the sump through an oil drain in the center housing.

Expanding exhaust gases drive the turbine shaft assembly to speeds up to 200,000 rpm. Filtered air entering the compressor side of the turbocharger is compressed and delivered through a Charge Air Cooler (CAC). The very hot compressed air is cooled, then continues on to fill the intake manifold at a higher pressure than atmospheric pressure. Because considerably more air is forced into the intake manifold, the results are increased power, fuel efficiency and the ability to maintain power at higher altitudes.

Inspection and Verification

NOTE: This section provides mechanical diagnosis of the turbocharger assembly. If there is a Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) illuminated, or DTCs are present, these should be diagnosed prior to performing turbocharger mechanical diagnosis. Refer to the Powertrain Control/Emissions Diagnosis (PC/ED) manual.

  1. Verify the customer concern.
  1. Inspect the entire turbocharger system for obvious signs of damage or other mechanical concerns, using the following chart.

     Visual Inspection Chart

Mechanical

  • Oil inlet pipe and connection
  • Oil outlet pipe and connection
  • Compressor housing inlet circuit and piping
  • Compressor housing outlet circuit and piping
  • Turbine housing inlet circuit and piping
  • Turbine housing outlet circuit and piping
  • Turbocharger actuator tubing or linkage
  1. If the concern(s) remains after the inspection, GO to Symptom Chart.
  1. If a driveability condition still exists, refer to the Powertrain Control/Emissions Diagnosis (PC/ED) manual.

Symptom Chart

Ford Taurus. Engine

Ford Taurus. Engine

Ford Taurus. Engine

Ford Taurus. Engine

Component Tests

Turbocharger Internal Oil Leak Test

NOTE: Some engine oil may be present in the turbocharger compressor inlet and in the air inlet components due to the crankcase breather system.

Check the turbocharger compressor inlet for evidence of oil. If excessive oil is present, this indicates that the failure could be in the engine or turbocharger. Refer to Section 303-00 or the following turbocharger check. If excessive oil is found in the turbocharger compressor outlet, check the Charge Air Cooler (CAC) for oil contamination. If contamination is present, flush the CAC. Refer to Section 303-12.

Check the turbocharger turbine outlet for evidence of oil. If excess oil is present in the outlet, remove the turbocharger from the engine and examine the oil supply and return passages in the turbocharger and engine block for restriction. If no restriction is found, install a new turbocharger.

Check for Free Rotation - Off Vehicle

NOTE: The turbocharger must be pre-oiled before carrying out this check.

NOTE: Turbine and compressor wheels must spin freely when turned by hand. No housing contact is permitted.

Inspect the turbocharger compressor and turbine fins for damage. If the compressor or turbine wheel fins are damaged, replace the turbocharger.

Press and rotate the turbocharger shaft, then repeat from the opposite side. If either the compressor wheel or the turbine wheel contacts the housing, the bearings are bad and a new turbocharger must be installed.

REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION

Turbocharger - LH

Material

Ford Taurus. Engine

Removal

NOTICE: Whenever turbocharger air intake system components are removed, always cover open ports to protect from debris. It is important that no foreign material enter the system. The turbocharger compressor vanes are susceptible to damage from even small particles. All components should be inspected and cleaned, if necessary, prior to installation or reassembly.

  1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a hoist. Refer to Section 100-02.
  1. Remove the Air Cleaner (ACL) assembly. Refer to Section 303-12.
  1. Disconnect the wastegate control valve hose from the LH turbocharger assembly.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 2 bolts from the top of the LH exhaust manifold heat shield.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Loosen the clamp and remove the LH turbocharger intake tube from the turbocharger.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the LH turbocharger oil supply tube bolt and sealing washer.
    • Discard the sealing washer and oil supply tube filter.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Drain the cooling system. Refer to Section 303-03.
  1. Remove the LH catalytic converter. Refer to Section 309-00.
  1. Remove the bottom bolt and the LH exhaust manifold heat shield.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 2 LH oil return tube-to-turbocharger bolts.
    • Remove and discard the gasket.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the LH turbocharger oil return tube from the oil pan.
    • Discard the 2 O-ring seals.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 2 coolant tube banjo bolts and the LH turbocharger coolant tubes.
    • Discard the sealing washers.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Loosen the clamp and remove the LH CAC tube from the LH turbocharger.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 3 exhaust manifold-to-LH turbocharger bolts.
    • Discard the gasket and bolts.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 2 bolts and the lower LH turbocharger-to-cylinder block bracket.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the upper LH turbocharger bracket-to-turbocharger bolt and the turbocharger assembly.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

Installation

  1. NOTICE: The upper LH turbocharger bracket bolt must be loosened in order to perform the tightening sequence or damage to the turbocharger may occur.

    Loosen the upper LH turbocharger bracket bolt.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install a new LH exhaust manifold-to-turbocharger gasket.
  1. Install the turbocharger assembly and install upper LH turbocharger bracket-to-turbocharger bolt.
    • Do not tighten the bolts at this time.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the lower LH turbocharger-to-cylinder block bracket and the 2 bolts.
    • Do not tighten the bolts at this time.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the 3 new LH exhaust manifold-to-turbocharger bolts.
    • Tighten to 45 Nm (33 lb-ft).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

NOTICE: The next 4 steps must be performed in the order written or damage to the turbocharger may occur.

  1. Tighten the upper LH turbocharger bracket-to-turbocharger bolt.
    • Tighten to 19 Nm (168 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Tighten the upper LH turbocharger bracket-to-cylinder block bolt.
    • Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Tighten the lower LH turbocharger bracket-to-turbocharger bolt.
    • Tighten to 19 Nm (168 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Tighten the lower LH turbocharger bracket-to-cylinder block bolt.
    • Tighten to 11 Nm (97 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. NOTE: Align the index marks for the LH CAC tube.

    Install the LH CAC tube on the LH turbocharger and tighten the clamp.

    • Tighten to 5 Nm (44 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Using 2 new sealing washers, install the 2 coolant tube banjo bolts.
    • Tighten to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. NOTE: Lubricate the oil pan bore with clean engine oil.

    Using 2 new O-ring seals, install the LH turbocharger oil return tube to the oil pan.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Using a new gasket, install the LH turbocharger oil return tube and the 2 bolts.
    • Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. NOTE: Align the marks for the LH turbocharger intake tube.

    Install LH turbocharger intake tube and tighten the clamp.

    • Tighten to 5 Nm (44 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the oil supply tube filter, washer and bolt.
    1. Install the new oil supply tube filter in the oil supply tube block.
    1. Slide the new washer onto the oil supply tube block.
    1. Install the bolt into the oil supply tube block.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the LH turbocharger oil supply tube.
    • Tighten to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. NOTE: Make sure the turbocharger wastegate regulating valve hose does not contact the exhaust manifold heat shield.

    Connect the wastegate control valve hose to the LH turbocharger assembly.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the LH exhaust manifold heat shield and the bottom bolt.
    • Do not tighten the bolts at this time.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the 2 top LH exhaust manifold heat shield bolts.
    • Tighten to 12 Nm (106 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Tighten the LH exhaust manifold heat shield bottom bolt.
    • Tighten to 12 Nm (106 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the LH catalytic converter. Refer to Section 309-00.
  1. Fill and bleed the cooling system. Refer to Section 303-03.
  1. Install the ACL assembly. Refer to Section 303-12.

Turbocharger - RH

Special Tool(s)

Ford Taurus. Engine

Material

Ford Taurus. Engine

Removal

NOTICE: Whenever turbocharger air intake system components are removed, always cover open ports to protect from debris. It is important that no foreign material enter the system. The turbocharger compressor vanes are susceptible to damage from even small particles. All components should be inspected and cleaned, if necessary, prior to installation or reassembly.

  1. With the vehicle in NEUTRAL, position it on a hoist. Refer to Section 100-02.
  1. NOTE: Use a steering wheel holding device (such as Hunter 28-75-1 or equivalent).

    Using a suitable holding device, hold the steering wheel in the straight-ahead position.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 4 retainers and the underbody shield.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Drain the cooling system. Refer to Section 303-03.
  1. Remove the RH catalytic converter. Refer to Section 309-00.
  1. Remove the front subframe. Refer to Section 502-00.
  1. Remove the RH turbocharger oil supply tube secondary latch.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Using a Spring Lock Coupling Disconnect Tool, remove the RH turbocharger oil supply tube from the quick connect fitting.
    • Inspect and if necessary, replace the quick connect fitting.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Loosen the clamp and remove the RH turbocharger intake pipe from the RH turbocharger.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Disconnect the turbocharger wastegate regulating valve hose from the RH turbocharger assembly.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 3 bolts and the RH turbocharger lower bracket.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 2 bolts and the RH turbocharger oil return tube from the turbocharger.
    • Remove and discard the gasket.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the RH turbocharger oil return tube from the cylinder block.
    • Discard the 2 O-ring seals.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 2 coolant tube banjo bolts and the RH turbocharger coolant tubes.
    • Discard the sealing washers. Discard the specified component. Follow local disposal regulations.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Detach the 2 vacuum hose retainers from the strut tower brace.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 4 nuts and the strut tower brace.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Disconnect the LH turbocharger bypass valve electrical connector and the turbocharger bypass valve hose.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the turbocharger wastegate regulating valve hose from the RH Charge Air Cooler (CAC) tube.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Disconnect the RH turbocharger bypass valve electrical connector.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Disconnect the RH turbocharger bypass valve hose.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the RH CAC tube nut from the intake manifold.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Loosen the clamp and remove the RH CAC tube.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Loosen the clamp and remove the RH CAC tube from the RH turbocharger.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 5 bolts and the 2 upper RH exhaust manifold heat shields.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 2 bolts and the RH engine lifting eye.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the 3 RH exhaust manifold-to-turbocharger bolts.
    • Discard the gasket.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the upper RH turbocharger-to-cylinder block bracket bolt and the RH turbocharger assembly.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Remove the RH turbocharger oil supply tube banjo bolt.
    • Discard the sealing washer and oil supply tube filter.

Installation

  1. Install the oil supply tube filter, washer and bolt.
    1. Install the new oil supply tube filter in the oil supply tube block.
    1. Slide the new washer onto the oil supply tube block.
    1. Install the bolt into the oil supply tube block.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the RH turbocharger oil supply tube.
    • Tighten the bolt to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).
  1. NOTICE: The upper RH turbocharger bracket bolts must be loosened in order to perform the tightening sequence or damage to the turbocharger may occur.

    Loosen the 2 bolts for the upper RH turbocharger-to-cylinder block bracket.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install a new RH exhaust manifold-to-turbocharger gasket.
  1. Install the RH turbocharger assembly and the upper RH turbocharger-to-cylinder block bracket bolt.
    • Do not tighten the bolts at this time.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the 3 new RH exhaust manifold-to-turbocharger bolts.
    • Tighten to 45 Nm (33 lb-ft).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the RH engine lifting eye and the 2 bolts.
    • Tighten to 24 Nm (18 lb-ft).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the 2 upper RH exhaust manifold heat shields and the 5 bolts.
    • Tighten to 12 Nm (106 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. NOTE: Align the index marks for the RH CAC tube.

    Install the RH CAC tube to the RH turbocharger and tighten the clamp.

    • Tighten to 5 Nm (44 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. NOTE: Align the index marks for the RH CAC tube.

    Install the RH CAC and tighten the clamp.

    • Tighten to 5 Nm (44 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the RH CAC tube and the RH CAC tube nut to the intake manifold.
    • Tighten to 6 Nm (53 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Connect the RH turbocharger bypass valve hose.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Connect the RH turbocharger bypass valve electrical connector.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the turbocharger wastegate regulating valve hose to the RH CAC tube.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Connect the LH turbocharger bypass valve electrical connector and the turbocharger bypass valve hose.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the strut tower brace and the 4 nuts.
    • Tighten to 30 Nm (22 lb-ft).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Attach the 2 brake booster vacuum hose retainers to the strut tower brace.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Position the upper RH turbocharger-to-cylinder block bracket as far clockwise as possible and tighten the bolts in the following sequence.
    1. Tighten the lower cylinder block bracket bolt to 26 Nm (19 lb-ft).
    1. Tighten the upper cylinder block bracket bolt to 26 Nm (19 lb-ft).
    1. Tighten the cylinder block bracket-to-turbocharger bolt to 19 Nm (168 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Using 2 new sealing washers, install the 2 RH turbocharger coolant tube banjo bolts.
    • Tighten to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. NOTE: Lubricate the cylinder block bore with clean engine oil.

    Using 2 new O-ring seals, install the RH turbocharger oil return tube in the cylinder block.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install a new gasket and install the RH turbocharger oil return tube and the 2 bolts.
    • Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the lower RH turbocharger bracket and the 3 bolts and tighten in sequence shown.
    1. Tighten the lower RH turbocharger bracket-to-turbocharger bolt to 19 Nm (168 lb-in).
    1. Tighten the 2 lower RH turbocharger bracket-to-cylinder block bolts to 48 Nm (35 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. NOTE: Make sure the turbocharger wastegate regulating valve hose does not contact the exhaust manifold heat shield.

    Connect the turbocharger wastegate regulating valve hose to the RH turbocharger.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. NOTE: Align the index marks for the RH turbocharger intake pipe.

    Install the RH turbocharger intake pipe to the RH turbocharger and tighten the clamp.

    • Tighten to 5 Nm (44 lb-in).

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. NOTE: Listen for audible click when installing the oil supply tube into the quick connect fitting.

    Install the RH turbocharger oil supply tube into the quick connect fitting.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the RH turbocharger oil supply tube secondary latch.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

  1. Install the front subframe.
  1. Install the RH catalytic converter.
  1. Fill and bleed the cooling system.
  1. Install the underbody shield and the 4 retainers.

    Ford Taurus. Engine

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